The University of Oxford is a university research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching since 1096, which makes it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the second oldest university in the world in continuous operation after the University of Bologna. It grew rapidly since 1167 when Henry II prohibited English students from attending the University of Paris. After the controversy between the students and the Oxford people in 1209, some scholars fled northeast to Cambridge, where they founded Cambridge University. The two “old universities” are often called jointly “Oxbridge”.The history and influence of the University of Oxford have made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world.
The university is composed of 39 constituent colleges and a range of academic departments, which are organized into four divisions. All schools are autonomous institutions within the university, each with its own membership and its own structure and internal activities. It does not have a main campus, and its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city center. Undergraduate teaching in Oxford is organized around weekly tutorials in universities and classrooms, with the support of classes, conferences, seminars and laboratory work provided by faculties and university departments; Some postgraduate teachings include tutorials organized by faculties and departments. It operates the oldest university museum in the world, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system in the country.
In the fiscal year ending July 31, 2018, the university had a total income of £ 2,237 billion, of which £ 579.1 million came from grants and research contracts. The university is cited as one of the best institutions of higher education by most international boards and major national leagues.
Oxford has educated many notable students, including 28 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world. Until November 2019, 72 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists and 6 Turing Prize winners have studied, worked or celebrated visiting scholarships at the University of Oxford, while their alumni have won 160 Olympic medals. Oxford is home to numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, which is one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programs.
Students of Oxford University:
Before the reforms in the early nineteenth century, the curriculum in Oxford was notoriously narrow and impractical. Sir Spencer Walpole, a contemporary British historian and senior government official, did not attend any university. He says, “few doctors, few lawyers, few people destined for trade or commerce, once dreamed of going through a university career.” He quotes the Commissioners of the University of Oxford in 1852 saying: “The education taught at Oxford was not able to advance in the lives of many people, except those destined for the ministry.” However, Walpole argued:
However, among the many deficiencies in attending university education, there was something good about it, and that was the education that university students gave themselves. It was impossible to gather around one thousand or one thousand two hundred of the best young men in England, to give them the opportunity to meet each other and have full freedom to live their lives in their own way, without evolving among the best. some admirable qualities of loyalty, independence and self-control. If the average university student received little or no apprenticeship from the university, which was of some service to him, he carried with him a knowledge of men and respect for their peers and for themselves, a reverence for the past, a code of honor for the present, which could only be useful. He had enjoyed opportunities … to have sex with men, some of whom would surely reach the highest places in the Senate, in the Church or in the Bar. He could have mixed with them in their sports, in their studies and perhaps in your debate society; and any association he had formed in this way had been useful to him at that time, and could be a source of satisfaction for him in the hereafter.
Of the students who enrolled in 1840, 65% were children of professionals (34% were Anglican ministers). After graduation, 87% became a professional (59% as an Anglican cleric). Of the students who enrolled in 1870, 59% were children of professionals (25% were Anglican ministers). After graduation, 87% became a professional (42% as an Anglican cleric).
M. C. Curthoys and H. S. Jones argue that the emergence of organized sport was one of the most notable and distinctive features of the history of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He was transferred from prevalent athletics in public schools such as Eton, Winchester, Shrewsbury and Harrow.
It was required that all students, regardless of their chosen area of study, spend (at least) their first year preparing for a freshman exam that focused largely on classical languages. Science students found this particularly expensive and supported a separate science degree with the study of the Greek language removed from their required courses. This concept of a bachelor of science degree had been adopted in other European universities (the University of London had implemented it in 1860), but an 1880 proposal in Oxford to replace the classical requirement with a modern language (such as German or French) did not He succeeded. After considerable internal disputes over the structure of the arts curriculum, in 1886 the “preliminary of natural sciences” was recognized as a qualifying part of the first-year exam.
At the beginning of 1914, the university housed about 3,000 university students and about 100 graduate students. During World War I, many university students and colleagues joined the armed forces. By 1918, virtually all fellows wore uniforms, and the student population in residence was reduced to 12 percent of the pre-war total. The University Service Role records that, in total, 14,792 university members served in the war, with 2,716 (18.36%) dead. Not all members of the university who served in the Great War were on the Allied side; There is a remarkable monument to the members of New College who served in the German armed forces, with the inscription: “ In memory of the men of this university who come from a foreign land they entered the inheritance of this place and returned fought and died for his country in the war 1914-1918 ‘. During the war years, university buildings became hospitals, cadet schools and military training camps.
Admission of Oxford University:
Like most British universities, potential students apply via the UCAS application system, but potential applicants from the University of Oxford, as well as applicants in medicine, dentistry and the University of Cambridge, must meet a previous deadline of October 15. Sutton Trust argues that the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge disproportionately recruit 8 schools, representing 1,310 Oxbridge positions for three years, in contrast to 1,220 of another 2,900 schools.
To allow for a more personalized judgment of the students, who could otherwise request both, undergraduate applicants are not allowed to submit applications in both Oxford and Cambridge in the same year. The only exceptions are the scholarship applicants for organs  and those who request reading for a second university degree. Oxford has the lowest offer rate of all the Russel Group universities.
Most applicants choose to apply to one of the individual universities, which work together to ensure that the best students get a place somewhere in the university, regardless of their university preferences. The pre-selection is based on the results of exams achieved and predicted, school references and, in some subjects, written admission tests or written work submitted by the candidate. About 60% of applicants are screened, although this varies by subject. If a large number of shortlisted applicants for a subject choose a university, then students who named that university can be randomly reassigned to universities with a low subscription for the subject. The universities then invite shortlisted candidates for an interview, where they are provided with food and lodging for approximately three days in December. Most applicants will be interviewed individually by academics in more than one university. Students from outside Europe may be interviewed remotely, for example, through the Internet.
Offers are shipped in early January and each offer usually comes from a specific university. One in four successful candidates receives an offer from a university to which they did not apply. Some courses may make “open offers” to some candidates, who are not assigned to a particular university until A-Level results day in August.
The university has been criticized for the number of students it accepts from private schools; for example, Laura Spence’s rejection of the university in 2000 led to wide debate. In 2016, the University of Oxford gave 59% of offers to students in the United Kingdom to students in state schools, while approximately 93% of all students in the United Kingdom and 86% of students in the Kingdom United after 16 years they receive education in state schools. However, 64% of UK applicants came from state schools and the university notes that state school students disproportionately apply to subjects with excess subscriptions. The University of Oxford spends more than £ 6 million per year on outreach programs to encourage applicants for underrepresented demographics.
In 2018, the university’s annual admissions report revealed that eight of the Oxford universities had accepted less than three black applicants in the last three years. David Lammy says, This is social apartheid and does not represent life in modern Britain.
Scholarships and financial support:
There are many opportunities for Oxford students to receive financial aid during their studies. The Oxford Opportunity Scholarships, introduced in 2006, is college-based media scholarships available to any British university student, with a possible total scholarship of £ 10,235 in a 3-year degree. In addition, individual universities also offer scholarships and funds to help their students. For postgraduate studies, there are many scholarships attached to the university, available for students of all backgrounds, from Rhodes Scholarships to the relatively new Weidenfeld Scholarships. Oxford also offers the Clarendon Scholarship, open to applicants of all nationalities. The Clarendon Scholarship is funded primarily by Oxford University Press in association with universities and other association awards. In 2016, the University of Oxford announced that it will hold its first free online economics course as part of a “mass open online course” (MOOC) scheme, in association with a network of online universities from the United States. The available course is called “From poverty to prosperity: understanding of economic development”.
Successful students in early exams are rewarded by their universities with scholarships and exhibitions, usually the result of a long-term endowment, although since the introduction of tuition fees, the amounts of money available are purely nominal. Academics and exhibitors in some universities have the right to wear a more voluminous graduation gown; “Commoners” (originally those who had to pay for their “commons” or food and shelter) are limited to a short sleeveless garment. The term “scholar” in relation to Oxford, therefore, has a specific meaning, as does the more general meaning of someone of outstanding academic ability. In earlier times, there were “noble plebeians” and “plebeian knights”, but these ranks were abolished in the nineteenth century. “Closed” scholarships, available only to candidates who fit specific conditions, such as coming from specific schools, were abolished in the 1970s and 1980s.
Get around at Oxford University:
The city center of Oxford is very compact and easy to navigate. Many areas of the city center are pedestrian, and all major tourist attractions are well signposted.
That the narrow streets of the city center are suitable for pedestrians, difficult for cars and full of beautiful buildings that will draw your attention upwards (rather than towards a more horizontal plane) does not mean that the city roads are paved overflowing You will find that most cyclists are quite lenient on this point, as they are used to and are often pedestrians tempted to do the same, as long as it suppresses the need to comment on any fault that really arises from their position in Middle of the road.
The preferred means of transportation for the university student is the bicycle and, like Amsterdam, Copenhagen or Beijing, there are hundreds of them. Most trains in Oxford allow you to transport bicycles for free. Fortunately, there are bike lanes on virtually any street near the center, however, sometimes you will share the road with other motorists. Although bus traffic can be daunting, cyclists’ familiarity with local drivers makes cycling safer than it seems at first. The best option is to follow the locals since they know what they are doing. It is illegal for cyclists to pass the red lights (although many do) and must use the lights at night, local police often establish checkpoints and there is a fine for riding a bicycle without lights. Bicycle parking is available everywhere, but be sure to get a strong lock since bicycle theft is common. Avoid cable locks as they are cut frequently.
Avoid driving in downtown Oxford. Traffic is heavy, the unidirectional system is very confusing, the streets are often very narrow with restrictions and parking is very expensive. Use the parking and walk system, or forget the car and come by public transport. If you have a motorcycle or scooter, things are a bit easier.
Local city buses are operated primarily by Oxford Bus Company and Stagecoach. Rates are expensive and are charged per distance (from £ 1.10 individual, £ 2 round trip (October 2018), pay the driver when boarding: cash or contactless; change is available), but if you plan to make more than two trips In one day, buy an all-day pass (£ 4.20, October 2018) to save money. The main local bus centers are the train station and St Aldates.
Oxford has Black Taxis (Hackney Carriage) that can be signaled from the street or taken from taxi ranks located around the city, and ‘minicabs’ that must be requested by phone or application, 001 and Royal Cars are the most popular services. Black cabs are quite expensive, but they are convenient for short breaks if you travel in a large group. Minicabs are much cheaper for long-distance trips; the fare must be agreed by phone when making the reservation or must be negotiated with the driver for long distances, however, within the city, the fare is set per meter in each taxi, never get on a minicab without agreeing with the price.
Uber is not yet available in Oxford.
See at Oxford University :
Visitors to Oxford must visit at least one college and visit at least one museum – if possible – to listen to world-class University Chapel Choirs. A walking tour (see “Do” below) is a good way to do this.
Bodleian Library: Bodleian, Oxford University’s main research library, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe (opened in 1602, based on the Tomas Bodle Collection) and the UK occupies second place in London after the British Library. The Bodleian now has numerous branches throughout the university; visiting bibliophiles will be more interested in examining the central site, which includes the Duke Humfrey Library on the Divinity School, the Quadrangle of the Ancient Schools with its Great Gate and Tower, the Radcliffe Chamber, Britain’s first circular library and the Clarendon building.
Radcliffe Camera, Radcliffe Square. Built between 1737 and 1749, the round chamber functions as a reading room for Oxford students and, therefore, is not generally accessible. However, it is worth seeing the great exterior.
Hertford Bridge (Hertford College). A picturesque pedestrian bridge for the students of Hertford College, popularly known as the “Bridge of Sighs” in Oxford.
Sheldonian Theater, Broad St. This unusual building was the first major architectural commission of Sir Christopher Wren. At that time he was a professor of astronomy at the university. There are a number of busts outside the theater in front of Broad St with strange expressions and facial hair.
Taylorian Institute (also known as Taylor Institution), St Giles ‘, OX1 3NA (corner of St Giles’ and Beaumont St, in front of the Randolph Hotel). The university center for the study of modern European languages and literature, established in 1845. Its library contains the largest specialized collection in its field in Britain. It is in a neoclassical building designed by Charles R. Cockerell and erected between 1841 and 1844 by the university to house the institution and the Randolph Galleries (today the Ashmolean museum).
For the uninitiated, little more than an average house on a residential street, but a must-see for Lord of the Rings fans. Free.
Tolkien House, 20 Northmoor Road, OX2 6UR. Only the fantastic author J.R.R. Tolkien lived in this mansion from 1930 to 1947 and wrote The Hobbit there.
University Church of St. Mary the Virgin, High St (entrances from High and from Radcliffe Square), 44 +44 1865 279112. Some of the best views of Oxford are obtained from the church tower, dating from 1280. The church, rebuilt in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries (with several additions after this time), it is full of architectural and historical interest. The church has a cafeteria, the Vaults and the Garden, now reopened under the administration of Will Pouget (already known for its ‘Alpha Bar’ in the Covered Market) and specialized in organic food and fair trade tea and coffee.